Submission Preparation ChecklistAs part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
- The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
- The submission file is in Microsoft Word or LaTeX document file format.
- Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
- The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.
We ask that authors follow some simple guidelines. The easiest way to do this is simply to download the template and replace the content with your own material.
All material on each page should fit within an A4 size paper.
Margins are set according as below.
- Top: 2.16 cm
- Bottom: 2.16 cm
- Left: 2.16 cm
- Right: 2.16 cm
- Gutter: 0.76 cm
- Gutter position: left
1. Normal or Body Text
- Title- font size 16, Headings - font size 14, subheading- font size 12 (all in BOLD).
- Text -Font type is Times New Roman with size 12.
- 1.15 spacing throughout with justified alignment.
- The manuscript should have a uniform style, correct journal format, carefully proofread for grammar, spelling and punctuation.
- Word limit;
- Original Research Article: 8000
- Review Article (Commentaries): 6000
- Case Study: 3000
2. Title and Authors
The title (Times New Roman font 16-point) and 20-points of white space between the Title and Authors' names (Times New Roman font 14-point) and affiliations (Times New Roman font 12-point) and 20-points of white space below the affiliation, before the abstract. These should be on a separate page. All of these elements run across the full width of the page – one column wide. Subsequent Pages
For pages other than the first page, start at the top of the page, and continue in a double-column format.
3. Page Numbering, Headers and Footers
Do not include headers, footers, or page numbers in your submission. The page numbers will be assigned when the publications are assembled.
The heading of a section should be in Times New Roman 14-point bold in all-capitals flush left with additional 6-points of white space above the section head.
The heading of sub-sections should be in Times New Roman 12-point bold with only the initial letters capitalized. (Note: For sub-sections and sub-sub-sections, a word like ‘the’ or ‘a’ is not capitalized unless it is the first word of the header).
The heading for sub-sub-sections should be in Times New Roman 12-point italic with initial letters capitalized and 4-points of white space above the sub-sub-section head.
In general, the original article should be divided into the following sections: Title page, Abstract, Text, Acknowledgement and References. The tables with titles and footnotes, graph with title and Illustrations with legends should be within the text where it should actually appear. Each of the sections is to start on a separate page.
- Title of the article.
- Names of all authors with institutional affiliations.
- Name of the department and institute where the study was undertaken.
- Name of the corresponding author with contact address, telephone number, Email address.
- Disclosure of conflict of interest if any
- The title page should be on a separate page.
- Title of the article.
- Structured with headings (Background, Objectives, Methods with statistical analysis, Result & Conclusion).
- The authors’ names should not be given.
- Preferably within 150-250 words.
- Avoid abbreviations in the title and abstract except standard abbreviations.
- A non-structured abstract is suggested for review articles and case reports.
- 3-5 words arranged alphabetically, separated by a semi-colon and ending with a full stop.
The text should be generally arranged into the following sections: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions, Acknowledgement, and References (all in Uppercase and Bold).
- Statement of the problem with a short discussion of its importance and significance.
- Review of the literature related to the problem with pertinent references.
- Objectives/ hypothesis/ benefits expected stated in 1-2 paragraph.
- Study type, place and time.
- Description of study variables.
- Description of study subjects and grouping.
- Selection criteria.
- Description of procedure and methods.
- Description of the statistical procedure with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify the reported results.
- Present results in logical sequence in text, table and illustration with the most important findings first.
- Describe without comment.
- Restrict the number of tables and figures needed to support the assessment of the paper (5-7).
- Do not duplicate data in tables and figures.
- This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them.
- A combined Results and Discussions section is often appropriate.
- The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusion section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.
- Individuals, institutions, sponsors, organizations, or bodies can be acknowledged in the article for their contribution or financial or any form of assistance to the work.
Citations in the text should follow the Harvard referencing style.
1. In-text citation
- Harvard referencing, in-text citations contain the author(s)’s or editor's (s)’s surname, year of publication and page number(s). For example; using an example author James Mitchell, this takes the form:
Mitchell (2017, p. 189) states... Or (Mitchell, 2017, p. 189)
Two or three authors:
When citing a source with two or three authors, state all surnames like so:
Mitchell, Smith and Thomson (2017, p. 189) state… Or
(Mitchell, Coyne and Thomson, 2017, p. 189)
Four or more authors:
- Where there are several authors (four or more), only the first author should
be used, followed by et al. meaning and others:
Mitchell et al. (2017) state… Or (Mitchell et al., 2017, p, 189)
If possible, use the organization responsible for the post in place of the author. If not, use the title in italics:
(A guide to citation, 2017, pp. 189-201)
Multiple works from the same author in the same year:
If referencing multiple works from one author released in the same year, the works are allocated a letter (a, b, c etc.) after the year. This allocation is done in the reference list so is done alphabetically according to the author's surname and source title:
(Mitchell, 2017a, p. 189) or Mitchell (2017b, p. 189)
Citing multiple works in one parenthesis:
List the in-text citations in the normal way but with semicolons between different references:
(Mitchell, 2017, p. 189; Smith, 200; Andrews, 1989, pp. 165-176)
Citing different editions of the same work in one parenthesis:
Include the author(s)’s name only once followed by all the appropriate dates separated by semicolons:
Mitchell (2010; 2017) states… Or (Mitchell, 2010; 2017)
Citing a reference with no date:
In this case, simply state ‘no date’ in place of the year:
(Mitchell, no date, p. 189).
Citing a secondary source:
In this case, state the reference you used first followed by ‘cited in’ and the original author:
Smith 2000 (cited in Mitchell, 2017, p. 189) or
(Smith, 2000, cited in Mitchell, 2017, p. 189)
2. End-text reference/Compiling the references list
- References list should be on a separate sheet at the end of the document.
- Should be organized alphabetically by author, unless there is no author then it is ordered by the source title, excluding articles such as a, an or the.
- If there are multiple works by the same author these are ordered by date, if the works are in the same year they are ordered alphabetically by the title and are allocated a letter (a, b, c etc.) after the date.
- Should be double spaced: there should be a full, blank line of space between each line of text and contain full references for all in-text references used.
The required elements for a book reference are:
Author, Initials. Year. Title of book. Edition. (Only include this if not the first edition) Place of publication* (this must be a town or city, not a country): Publisher.
Mitchell, J.A. and Thomson, M. 2017. A guide to citation. London: London Publishing.
Redman, P., 2006. Good essay writing: a social sciences guide. 3rd ed. London: Open University in assoc. with Sage.
Books with multiple authors
For books with multiple authors, all* the names should be included in the order they appear in the document. For example,
Carter, B., James, K.L., Wood, G. and Williamson, D.H., 2018. Research Methods. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
To reference an e-book, information about its collection, location online and the date it was accessed are needed as well as author name, title and year of publishing:
Mitchell, J.A., Thomson, M. and Coyne, R.P. 2017. A guide to citation. E-book library [online]. Available at: https://www.mendeley.com/reference-management/reference-manager (Accessed: 10 September 2016).
For a pdf version of, for example, a Government publication or similar which is freely available:
Bank of England, 2008. Inflation Report. (pdf) Bank of England. Available at: http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/publications/inflationreport/ir08nov.pdf (Accessed 20 April 2009).
Department of Health, 2008. Health inequalities: progress and next steps. (pdf) London: Department of Health. Available at: http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/D_085307 (Accessed 9 June 2008).
The required elements for a reference are:
Author, Initials., Year. Title of the article. Full Title of Journal, Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page number(s).
Mitchell, J.A. 2017. How citation changed the research world. International Journal of Management Education, 62(9), p70-81.
Example of an online Journal Article
Mitchell, J.A. 2017. How citation changed the research world. International Journal of Management Education, 62(9) [online]. Available at: https://www.mendeley.com/reference-management/reference-manager (Accessed: 15 November 2016).
Articles with DOIs
The required elements for a reference are;
Author, Initials., Year. Title of article. Full Title of Journal, [e-journal] Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page numbers if available. DOI.
Ada, A.F., 2007. A Lifetime of Learning to Teach. Journal of Latinos & Education, [e-journal] 6 (2), pp.103-118. 10.1080/15348430701304658.
Boon, S., Johnston, B. and Webber, S., 2007. A Phenomenographic study of English faculty's conceptions of information literacy. Journal of Documentation, [e-journal] 63(2), pp.204 – 228. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00220410710737187.
Citing a newspaper article is similar to citing a journal article except, instead of the volume and issue number, the edition and date of publication are needed. For newspaper articles, the required elements for a reference are:
Author, Initials., Year. Title of article or column header. Full Title of Newspaper, Day and month before page number and column line.
Slapper, G., 2005. Corporate manslaughter: new issues for lawyers. The Times, 3 Sep. p.4b.
Chittenden, M., Rogers, L. and Smith, D., 2003. Focus: Targetitis ails NHS. Times Online, [online] 1 June. Available at: http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/scotland/art1138006.ece [Accessed: 17 March 2015].
The required elements for a reference are:
Corporate author, Year. The full title of annual report. Place of publication: Publisher.
Marks & Spencer, 2004. The way forward, Annual report 2003-2004. London: Marks & Spencer.
- If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc.
- Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on.
- Similarly, for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.
- Simple self-explanatory with brief title, not duplicate in text.
- Tables should be editable text and not as images.
- Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end as appendices.
- Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place.
- All tables must be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals.
- Captions should be Times New Roman 12-point bold. They should be numbered (e.g., “Table 1” or “Table 1(A)”).
- Please avoid using vertical and horizontal rules and shading in table cells.
- Table captions should be centered above the table body.
Table 1. Table captions should be placed above the table
Source: National Statistics Bureau, 2016 or Mitchell, Thomson, and Coyne, 2017
- All illustrations must be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals as they appear in the text.
- Captions should be Times New Roman 12-point bold. They should be numbered (e.g., “Figure 2 or Figure 1(a)”).
- The figure’s captions should be centered beneath the image or picture.
Fig 1: Figure’s captions should be centered beneath the image or picture (Mitchell, and Coyne, 2017)
Footnotes should be supplied on separate sheets grouped at the end of the manuscript, with a note of their location in the text. Footnotes should be avoided if possible; where they are used, they should be numbered consecutively with superscript Arabic numerals.
The names and email addresses entered in this journal site is used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and is not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party. However, name, email and phone number of the corresponding author is made available in correspondence detail of the article, to make it available in a good faith that like-minded people e.g. researcher could contact them.